Return to Home Page Perhaps you’ve heard the claims: Were it not for the genius and energy of African-American inventors, we might find ourselves in a world without traffic lights, peanut butter, blood banks, light bulb filaments, and a vast number of other things we now take for granted but could hardly imagine life without. Such beliefs usually originate in books or articles about black history. Since many of the authors have little interest in the history of technology outside of advertising black contributions to it, their stories tend to be fraught with misunderstandings, wishful thinking, or fanciful embellishments with no historical basis. The lack of historical perspective leads to extravagant overestimations of originality and importance: Unfortunately, some of the errors and exaggerations have acquired an illusion of credibility by repetition in mainstream outlets, especially during Black History Month see examples for the traffic light and ironing board. When myths go unchallenged for too long, they begin to eclipse the truth. Thus I decided to put some records straight. Although this page does not cover every dubious invention claim floating around out there, it should at least serve as a warning never to take any such claim for granted. Each item below is listed with its supposed black originator beneath it along with the year it was supposedly invented, followed by something about the real origin of the invention or at least an earlier instance of it.
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The portion of Interstate between Interstate 95 and Interstate runs north—south through Delaware and Montgomery Counties and is officially known as the Mid-County Expressway and the Veterans Memorial Highway, as well as by the nickname the “Blue Route”. The road’s southern terminus is at a junction with Interstate 95 near Chester , a city southwest of Philadelphia , near Philadelphia International Airport. It winds through the western Philadelphia suburbs of Wallingford and Swarthmore , where I comes to an interchange with Baltimore Pike.
From here, the freeway continues north to Springfield , where it meets U. Route 1 at a three-level diamond interchange.
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The first known traffic signal appeared in London in near the Houses of Parliament. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore arms and two gas lamps. The earliest electric traffic lights include Lester Wire’s two-color version set up in Salt Lake City circa , James Hoge’s system US patent 1, , installed in Cleveland by the American Traffic Signal Company in , and William Potts’ 4-way red-yellow-green lights introduced in Detroit beginning in New York City traffic towers began flashing three-color signals also in Garrett Morgan’s cross-shaped, crank-operated semaphore was not among the first half-hundred patented traffic signals, nor was it “automatic” as is sometimes claimed, nor did it play any part in the evolution of the modern traffic light.
Gas Mask Garrett Morgan in ? The invention of the gas mask predates Morgan’s breathing device by several decades. Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in and the physicist John Tyndall in the s, among many other inventors prior to World War I. Peanut Butter George Washington Carver who began his peanut research in ?
Peanuts, which are native to the New World tropics, were mashed into paste by Aztecs hundreds of years ago. Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in , for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached “a fluid or semi-fluid state. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels.
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From this interchange, the route heads northwest as a four-lane freeway past suburban development, crossing into West Whiteland Township. PA comes to a southbound exit and northbound entrance with Pottstown Pike, at which point the freeway ends and the route continues as four-lane divided Pottstown Pike.
PA crosses US 30 Bus. Lincoln Highway and passes to the west of Exton Square Mall. The road heads north past more commercial development and narrows to four lanes as it heads into more wooded areas with some development, crossing into Uwchlan Township. The route curves to the northwest and continues near suburban residential and commercial development, turning to the west as it reaches an intersection with PA in the community of Lionville.
PA heads northwest between woods to the southwest and fields to the northeast as it reaches a trumpet interchange providing access to the Pennsylvania Turnpike I at the Downingtown interchange. The road passes near business parks and enters Upper Uwchlan Township as it comes to a bridge under the Pennsylvania Turnpike and reaches the community of Eagle. Between Exton and Eagle, several intersections along PA are controlled by jughandles. The route passes businesses in the center of the community before it heads north and intersects with Graphite Mine Road again.
The road continues past a mix of residential subdivisions with some farm fields and businesses. PA crosses into West Vincent Township , where it gains a second northbound lane as it passes through woods. The route becomes a three-lane road with a center left-turn lane as it passes commercial development and comes to an intersection with PA in the village of Ludwigs Corner.
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At that time, I objected to the assertion that the variant put forth in the new testament is superior to what came before. I started thinking that perhaps I should take some time to research the Golden Rule. It instead can be expressed in various ways, and I have found four, which can be simplified to these: Do for others so that they do for you 3. Do to others what you would want done to you 4. Perhaps the first thing you see, which is what I originally saw, was the contrast of doing for and not doing to.
The negative version is what we have knowledge of existing first, coming from Confucius, the Buddha, Zarathustra, Socrates and also appearing in Judaism. I believe it no doubt is the earliest form, for you can imagine in a primitive world your first desire is to put your fears to rest, and one of the greatest early fears must have been fear of others.
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The road runs through a mix of farmland and trees with some residences, crossing Chiques Creek into West Hempfield Township. The route continues through rural land with some housing developments as Marietta Pike, passing through the community of Silver Spring. PA 23 runs through farm fields with some residential and commercial development and crosses into East Hempfield Township at the Stony Battery Road intersection in the community of Oyster Point.
The road continues through development with some farmland, coming to bridges over the US 30 freeway without an interchange and Norfolk Southern ‘s Columbia Secondary. The route passes homes in the community of Rohrerstown and reaches an intersection with PA
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The following was issued by the office of U. Ryan Costello, R-6th Dist. Ryan Costello, R-6th Dist, issued the following statement Friday in the wake of the announcement by U. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos that the Department would rescind Title IX guidance issued in that protects young people from sexual assault and harassment. This decision affects all the nation’s colleges, universities, and K schools: Any threats to a safe and healthy learning environment — especially sexual misconduct — must be taken seriously and addressed swiftly and fairly.
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Some of this advice can be quite helpful, but much of it is mistaken and based on personal experiences and opinions, rather than actual research about relationships. Below, I take on five common pieces of dating advice that are misguided or flat-out wrong. When you meet the right person, you’ll know right away. One comforting piece of advice is that when the right person comes along, you’ll just magically know. Maybe you’ll even experience love at first sight.
In a series of studies, Paul Eastwick and colleagues tracked people’s memories of various relationship experiences across the entire course of their relationships, both short-term and long-term. It was only later on that the researchers saw differences between relationships that lasted and relationships that eventually fizzled. But what about love at first sight? Research shows that many people believe they have experienced it.
And many people who report “love at first sight” with their current partner are just projecting their current feelings onto their initial encounters with that person. If you’re interested in someone, play hard to get. Many relationship advice books tell women that they should play hard to get if they hope to attract a man.
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Speed Dating is the fast new way to meet other Singles. These get-togethers are regularly held in every region of the country Are you a bit intimidated by the thought of attending a Speed Dating event? Don’t know what to expect at one of these parties? Cringe at the thought of possibly meeting up to 25 prospective soulmates in one evening? Well, we’ve got advice, information and tips that you can use. Read the articles we have assembled below and you should be able to survive your first event.