How Old is Earth?

This type of Stone Age art is traditionally divided into two main categories: While these petroglyphs and pictographs have been found on the walls of caves, or on exposed outdoor sections of rock, in practice, the earliest art of Europe was created in subterranean caves, while in say Northern Africa it is found mostly on the surface of the ground. A third, smaller category of rock art is associated with Megaliths or Petroforms, involving the arrangement of stones to create a type of monument eg. Characteristics Petroglyphs are generally made by removing the surface of the rock, by carving, scratching, drilling, or sculpting. The markings can be dyed or painted, or enhanced through polishing. Petroglyphs have been discovered all over the populated world, notably in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, Northern and Western Australia, and the Iberian Peninsula. The most important, but mysterious, type of petroglyph is the cupule – a non-functional cup-shaped hole created by percussion in the horizontal or vertical surface of a rock. By far the oldest art , cupules have been discovered on every continent except Antarctica, and continued to be created throughout all three eras of the Stone Age. Cupules have also been referred to as “pits”, “hollows”, “cups”, “cup marks” – even “pot-holes”. The most important sites of engraved cave art include:

Creation vs. Evolution

Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.

To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging.

Constraining the age of rock art by dating a rockfall event using sediment and rock-surface luminescence dating techniques M.S. Chapot a,b,*, R. Sohbati a, A.S. Murray a, J.L. Pederson b, T.M. Rittenour b.

Z Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. If the rock or mineral term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail us and we’ll add it. I ice age An ice age is a time lasting thousands of years during which the Earth is very cold and largely covered by ice and glaciers. It has a flat base and a convex upper surface.

The magma cools and solidifies, and eventually, it is exposed as the fractured sedimentary rock above it erodes away. Intrusive rocks are igneous rocks that have formed and cooled slowly beneath the surface of the Earth. Extrusive rocks are igneous rocks that have formed and cooled more quickly at the surface of the Earth like obsidian. Some igneous rocks include granite, obsidian volcanic glass , basalt, and andesite porphyry.

It is a fine emerald-green color. Imperial Mexican jade Imperial Mexican jade is not jade at all; it is calcite that has been dyed green. Inca emerald Inca emerald is an emerald that is mined in Equador.

Radioactive Dating Game

Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Albedo — The amount of solar radiation that is reflected back off a surface. Alum — A chemical compound that can be processed from clays.

Rock: Rock, in geology, naturally occurring coherent aggregate of one or more minerals that constitutes the basic unit of which the solid Earth consists.

See Article History Igneous rock, any of various crystalline or glassy rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten earth material. Igneous rocks constitute one of the three principal classes of rocks, the others being metamorphic and sedimentary. Earth is composed predominantly of a large mass of igneous rock with a very thin veneer of weathered material—namely, sedimentary rock. Because of the high temperatures within Earth, the principles of chemical equilibrium are applicable to the study of igneous and metamorphic rocks, with the latter being restricted to those rocks formed without the direct involvement of magma.

Because magma is less dense than the surrounding solid rocks, it rises toward the surface. It may settle within the crust or erupt at the surface from a volcano as a lava flow. Rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of magma deep within the crust are distinct from those erupted at the surface mainly owing to the differences in physical and chemical conditions prevalent in the two environments. On the other hand, magma erupted at the surface is chilled so quickly that the individual minerals have little or no chance to grow.

Interpreting Geologic Sections in Structural Geology

General considerations Rock types Igneous rocks are those that solidify from magma , a molten mixture of rock-forming minerals and usually volatiles such as gases and steam. Since their constituent minerals are crystallized from molten material, igneous rocks are formed at high temperatures. They originate from processes deep within the Earth—typically at depths of about 50 to kilometres 30 to miles —in the mid- to lower-crust or in the upper mantle.

Igneous rocks are subdivided into two categories:

Angular conformity: younger sediments rest upon the eroded surface of tilted or folded older rocks.. Disconformity: contact between younger and older beds is marked by a visible, irregular or uneven erosional surface.. Paraconformity: beds above and below the unconformity are parallel and no erosional surface is evident; but can be recognized based on the gap in the rock record.

Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide. This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay emission of alpha particles and beta decay electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture. Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides.

While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life , usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques. After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a “daughter” nuclide or decay product.

In many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain , eventually ending with the formation of a stable nonradioactive daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life.

Looking for other ways to read this?

Exxon group modified this definition to “a surface separating younger from older strata , along which there is evidence of subaerial erosional truncation and, in some areas, correlative submarine erosion or subaerial exposure, with a significant hiatus indicated” or downdip correlative conformities marking a hiatus in sedimentation Vail, et al. Catuneanu and Hunt and Tucker suggest the correlative conformity forms on the paleo-sea floor at the end of forced regression and correlates with the seaward termination of the subaerial unconformity.

He sees the surface as the result of fluvial erosion or bypass, pedogenesis, wind degradation and related to the stages of base-level fall in the standard sequence stratigraphic models ; stages of transgression e.

Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.

Ice Frozen form of the water molecule. Ice has a specific gravity 0. This difference in specific gravity causes ice to float on water. Ice Age Period of time when glaciers dominate the landscape of the Earth. The last major Ice Age was during the Pleistocene epoch. Iceberg A mass of ice found floating in the ocean or a lake.

Igneous rock

Here are some interpretations of Arkansas rock art: These modern interpretations can be useful to those who engage in them, even giving great pleasure and serenity. On these particular pages of our web site, we are concerned with the meaning of Rock Art to its creators and audiences of the past, not to people of the present. The kind of interpretation we explore here is a branch of science.

Rock Art, as we use the term here, refers mostly to pictures or symbols left on rock surfaces by members of traditional cultures. When we can both assign a date to rock art and identify the present-day descendants of those who made it, we know where their ancestors were at some time in the past.

The presence of rock varnish presents a further factor/complexity in rock surface luminescence dating because it has the potential to block sunlight from the rock surface into the interior of the rock.

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.

When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.

I claim no copyright on this document, and grant its use to the public domain. I have not written it with a view towards receiving any sort of financial or other personal gain, and I request that others utilizing this document do likewise.

Radioactive Dating Game

Primary igneous rocks in the lunar highlands compose three distinct groups: Lunar breccias, formed largely by the immense basin-forming impacts, are dominantly composed of highland lithologies because most mare basalts post-date basin formation and largely fill these impact basins. The ferroan anorthosite suite is the most common group in the highlands, and is inferred to represent plagioclase flotation cumulates of the lunar magma ocean, with interstitial mafic phases formed from trapped interstitial melt or rafted upwards with the more abundant plagioclase framework.

This reflects the extreme depletion of the bulk moon in alkalis Na, K as well as water and other volatile elements. Ferroan anorthosites have been dated using the internal isochron method at “circa” 4.

There is growing interest in rock surface burial and exposure luminescence dating for use in Quaternary science and in archaeology. Such methods have enormous potential both in increasing the range of sedimentary contexts that can be dated, and improving the accuracy and the precision of .

For example, rock layers show the sequence of geological events, and the presence and amount of radioactive elements in rocks make it possible to determine their ages. Analyses of rock formations and the fossil record are used to establish relative ages. In an undisturbed column of rock, the youngest rocks are at the top, and the oldest are at the bottom. Rock layers have sometimes been rearranged by tectonic forces; rearrangements can be seen or inferred, such as from inverted sequences of fossil types.

The rock record reveals that events on Earth can be catastrophic, occurring over hours to years, or gradual, occurring over thousands to millions of years. Records of fossils and other rocks also show past periods of massive extinctions and extensive volcanic activity. Although active geological processes, such as plate tectonics link to ESS2. B and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, some other objects in the solar system, such as asteroids and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years.

Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: A Framework for K Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academies Press.

Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

Blocks are angular fragments that were solid when ejected. Bombs have an aerodynamic shape indicating they were liquid when ejected. Bombs and lapilli that consist mostly of gas bubbles vesicles result in a low density highly vesicular rock fragment called pumice. Rock formed by accumulation and cementation of tephra called a pyroclastic rock or tuff. Welding, compaction and deposition of other grains cause tephra loose material to be converted into pyroclastic rock.

A Radiometric Dating Resource List Tim Thompson has collected a large set of links to web pages that discuss radiometric dating techniques and the age of the earth controversy.

That orbiting material consisted of hot chunks of rock and frozen liquids called “planetisimals”. From these were gradually formed several nine that we know of planets including Earth. The planets – including Earth – still move in relatively stable orbits around the sun. Earth not only orbits the sun but spins on its own axis as it does so. At the equator the Earth is spinning on its axis at a speed of about 1, miles 1, kilometres an hour. Earth’s spin or rotation is a relic of its origin as a hot, spinning mass when it was first formed.

Earth science or geology is the science of the Earth. It is an organized study and body of knowledge about mountains, plains and oceans; about the history of life on Earth; and about the succession of physical events that have been or are still part of this history. How was the planet Earth formed? Chunks of rock and frozen liquids in orbit around the newly forming Sun converged and melted together to form the planets.

Radiometric dating

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.

In limestone, sandstone or other rock type, the original surface is often covered by SURFACE DATING BY LUMINESCENCE: AN OVERVIEW a) where NTL the natural TL, N+β the natural TL added beta doses curves, β the administered beta dose in Gy, Nbl the bleached TL.

See Article History Rock, in geology , naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is comprised and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are 1 igneous rocks, which have solidified from molten material called magma; 2 sedimentary rocks, those consisting of fragments derived from preexisting rocks or of materials precipitated from solutions; and 3 metamorphic rocks, which have been derived from either igneous or sedimentary rocks under conditions that caused changes in mineralogical composition , texture, and internal structure.

These three classes, in turn, are subdivided into numerous groups and types on the basis of various factors, the most important of which are chemical, mineralogical, and textural attributes. Rocks can be any size. Some are smaller than these grains of sand.

Radioactive Dating